Excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free
The comprehensive reference, now completely up-to-date for Excel ! As the standard for spreadsheet applications, Excel is used worldwide – but it’s not always user-friendly.
However, in the 20133 of veteran excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free author Greg Harvey, Excel gets a company portal download windows 10 lot easier to understand! This handy all-in-one guide covers all the essentials, the new features, how to analyze data with Excel, and much more. The featured minibooks address Excel basics, worksheet design, formulas and functions, worksheet collaboration and review, charts and graphics, data management, data analysis, and Excel and VBA.
Excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free you’re an Excel newbie or a veteran user to wants cummies get familiar with the latest version, Excel All-in-One For Dummies has everything you need to know. Understanding how to use the many features of Excel is only half the battle.
The other half is understanding what these features fgee do for you. So whether you’re starting out or upgrading, using Excel on your desktop or tablet, this all-in-one guide covers what you need to know to master worksheets, formulas, functions, charts, even qll-in-one analysis. He reset 10 windows free out training business users on how 10 enterprise vs pro free download use IBM personal computers and their attendant computer software in the rough and tumble days of DOS, WordStar, and Lotus in the mids of the last century.
After working for a number of independent training firms, he went on to teach semester-long courses in spreadsheet and database management software at Golden Gate University in All-i-none Francisco. His love of teaching has translated excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free an equal love of writing. For Dummies books are, of course, his all-time favorites to write because they excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free him to write to his favorite audience, the beginner.
They also enable him to use humor a key element to success in the training room and, most delightful of all, to express an opinion or two about the subject matter at hand. Everyone is glad that Greg was finally able to get out of school before he retired.
Customer Reviews, including Product Star Ratings help customers to learn more about the product and decide whether it is the right product for them. Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon.
It also analyzed reviews to verify trustworthiness. Enhance your purchase. Covers the changes in the newest version as well excsl familiar tasks, such as creating and editing worksheets, sll-in-one up formulas, and excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free statistical functions Walks you through the new analysis tools that help make it easier to visualize data with the click of a mouse Details new ways to explore your data more intuitively ror then analyze and display your results with a single click Whether you’re an Excel newbie or a veteran user to wants to get familiar with the latest version, Excel All-in-One For Dummies has everything you need to know.
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In Stock. Get it as soon as Monday, Aug Only 18 left in stock excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free on the way. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Beezix Inc. Excel for Dummies. Greg Harvey. Excel Formulas Al-in-one Study Computer. John Michaloudis. Excel for Beginners Excel Essentials. Mike Smart. Read more. Don’t have a Kindle? Virtual lessons for curious minds. Amazon Explore Browse now.
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I have had the Word for Dummies and I used it often. I have been excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free teaching myself Exceland I wanted the. I felt I needed an Excel all-in-on. This du,mies so useful, and it was so inexpensive used on Amazon. So I definitely recommend this book as a good information excl on Excel One person found this helpful.
This book is pages not complaining, just an FYI. I bought it for an accounting class, but I see I can use this for anything related to Excel. If you’ve never had a “For Dummies” book before, just know that there is a all-kn-one of information that you may already know the basics and that does take up a excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free portion of the book.
For beginners or those returning to school after being away for some time, it’s perfect to get you on the right track. The language and This book is not for dummies. The language and technical terms presume that you already excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free an understanding of the system. The book guides you through the vast features of excel but dummiws to give you any purpose or reason excdl use of the commands.
If you already know Fof word it will help you greatly with this book. For all others, it will overwhelm you. This book is all you need for Excel I am not an Excel all-ij-one and have only used it once in awhile.
That should give you an idea of my competency with Excel. My wife, however knows Excel having used if for years. She had a question of how to do something and the book had the answer. For dummies but overwhelming I think. I need to apply myself to grasp the instruction in this book but I like that I can lookup what I need to learn.
Also I’m using excel so that doesn’t help either I think. Oh well. Dummies books are the BEST! Great book forr both beginner and advanced MS-Excel users, and is up-to-date with enhanced functionality. Dummies books are the best and can easily dummjes the excl of a class. I keep this in my office to refer to, as I work with Excel on a pretty regular basis. Dear Greg, I think you’ve spent too much time using Excel and not enough time teaching people microsoft access database download for windows 10 to use Excel.
The index and TOC are both atrocious and incomprehensible. It will take you longer to find what you are looking for then to figure it all-un-one for yourself. Great for the novice and those who have extensively used previous versions of Excel привожу ссылку need to take full advantage of the additional excel 2013 all-in-one for dummies pdf free in See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries.
Excel for Dummies has so far covered everything I can think of relating to Excel. It takes you from novice to reasonably competent with well worked through chapters filled with examples.
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The source code has been used to develop variants of Android on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles , digital cameras , portable media players , PCs , each with a specialized user interface. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since and on tablets since As of May [update] , it has over three billion monthly active users , the largest installed base of any operating system,  and as of January [update] , the Google Play Store features over 3 million apps.
Android Inc. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, and Android was facing eviction from its office space.
Perlman refused a stake in the company, and has stated “I did it because I believed in the thing, and I wanted to help Andy. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system.
Speculation about Google’s intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December On November 5, , the Open Handset Alliance , a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC , Motorola and Samsung , wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile , and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments , unveiled itself, with a goal to develop “the first truly open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices”.
In September , InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since , Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called ” Cupcake “, ” Donut “, ” Eclair “, and ” Froyo “, in that order. During its announcement of Android KitKat in , Google explained that “Since these devices make our lives so sweet, each Android version is named after a dessert”, although a Google spokesperson told CNN in an interview that “It’s kind of like an internal team thing, and we prefer to be a little bit—how should I say—a bit inscrutable in the matter, I’ll say”.
In , Google launched its Nexus series of devices, a lineup in which Google partnered with different device manufacturers to produce new devices and introduce new Android versions. The series was described as having “played a pivotal role in Android’s history by introducing new software iterations and hardware standards across the board”, and became known for its ” bloat-free ” software with “timely He left Google in August to join Chinese phone maker Xiaomi.
On Android 4. Writing access has been reinstated with Android 5 Lollipop through the backwards-incompatible Google Storage Access Framework interface.
In June , Google announced Android One , a set of “hardware reference models” that would “allow [device makers] to easily create high-quality phones at low costs”, designed for consumers in developing countries.
In May , the operating system became entangled in the trade war between China and the United States involving Huawei , which, like many other tech firms, had become dependent on access to the Android platform. On August 22, , it was announced that Android “Q” would officially be branded as Android 10, ending the historic practice of naming major versions after desserts. Google stated that these names were not “inclusive” to international users due either to the aforementioned foods not being internationally known, or being difficult to pronounce in some languages.
Android’s default user interface is mainly based on direct manipulation , using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching, and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects, along with a virtual keyboard. Internal hardware, such as accelerometers , gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented,  or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel.
Android devices boot to the home screen , the primary navigation and information “hub” on Android devices, analogous to the desktop found on personal computers. Android home screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets ; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content, such as a weather forecast , the user’s email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the home screen.
Along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be pulled swiped down from to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, as well as quick access to system controls and toggles such as display brightness, connectivity settings WiFi , Bluetooth , cellular data , audio mode, and flashlight.
Notifications are “short, timely, and relevant information about your app when it’s not in use”, and when tapped, users are directed to a screen inside the app relating to the notification. An “All Apps” screen lists all installed applications, with the ability for users to drag an app from the list onto the home screen. The app list may be accessed using a gesture or a button, depending on the Android version. A “Recents” screen, also known as “Overview”, lets users switch between recently used apps.
The recent list may appear side-by-side or overlapping, depending on the Android version and manufacturer. Many early Android OS smartphones were equipped with a dedicated search button for quick access to a web search engine and individual apps’ internal search feature. More recent devices typically allow the former through a long press or swipe away from the home button. The dedicated option key, also known as menu key, and its on-screen simulation, is no longer supported since Android version Google recommends mobile application developers to locate menus within the user interface.
Depending on device, its long press may simulate a menu button press or engage split screen view, the latter of which is the default behaviour since stock Android version 7. Native support for split screen view has been added in stock Android version 7.
The earliest vendor-customized Android-based smartphones known to have featured a split-screen view mode are the Samsung Galaxy S3 and Note 2 , the former of which received this feature with the premium suite upgrade delivered in TouchWiz with Android 4.
When connecting or disconnecting charging power and when shortly actuating the power button or home button, all while the device is powered off, a visual battery meter whose appearance varies among vendors appears on the screen, allowing the user to quickly assess the charge status of a powered-off without having to boot it up first.
Some display the battery percentage. Since stock Android version 12, released early , synchronous vibration can be set to complement audio. Applications ” apps ” , which extend the functionality of devices and must be bit  , are written using the Android software development kit SDK  and, often, Kotlin programming language, which replaced Java as Google’s preferred language for Android app development in May ,  and was originally announced in May The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,  including a debugger , software libraries , a handset emulator based on QEMU , documentation, sample code, and tutorials.
Android has a growing selection of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by downloading and installing the application’s APK Android application package file, or by downloading them using an application store program that allows users to install, update, and remove applications from their devices. Google Play Store is the primary application store installed on Android devices that comply with Google’s compatibility requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software.
Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons.
F-Droid , another alternative marketplace, seeks to only provide applications that are distributed under free and open source licenses. In October , Google removed several Android applications from Play Store , as they were identified breaching its data collection rules. The storage of Android devices can be expanded using secondary devices such as SD cards.
Android recognizes two types of secondary storage: portable storage which is used by default , and adoptable storage. Portable storage is treated as an external storage device. Adoptable storage, introduced on Android 6. This has the disadvantage of preventing the memory card from being used with another device unless it is reformatted.
Android 4. Apps are required to use the SAF to access any other part of the filesystem. Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage processes to keep power consumption at a minimum. When an application is not in use the system suspends its operation so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources. Some settings for use by developers for debugging and power users are located in a “Developer options” sub menu, such as the ability to highlight updating parts of the display, show an overlay with the current status of the touch screen, show touching spots for possible use in screencasting , notify the user of unresponsive background processes with the option to end them “Show all ANRs”, i.
Developer options are initially hidden since Android 4. Hiding developers options again requires deleting user data for the “Settings” app, possibly resetting some other preferences. While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on ARM Since Android 5.
Requirements for the minimum amount of RAM for devices running Android 7. Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS , orientation sensors , dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers , gyroscopes , barometers, magnetometers , proximity sensors , pressure sensors , thermometers, and touchscreens.
Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional.
In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse. Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project AOSP ,  an open source initiative led by Google.
The source code is, in turn, customized by original equipment manufacturers OEMs to run on their hardware. Google provides annual  Android releases, both for factory installation in new devices, and for over-the-air updates to existing devices. The extensive variation of hardware  in Android devices has caused significant delays for software upgrades and security patches.
Each upgrade has had to be specifically tailored, a time- and resource-consuming process. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media. In , Google began de-coupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its central applications so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS. One of those components, Google Play Services , is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.
With these changes, Google can add new system functions and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself. HTC ‘s then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates “unrealistic” in , and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures. In May , Bloomberg Businessweek reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to “shame” them into better behavior.
As stated by Bloomberg : “As smartphones get more capable, complex and hackable, having the latest software work closely with the hardware is increasingly important”. Hiroshi Lockheimer, the Android lead, admitted that “It’s not an ideal situation”, further commenting that the lack of updates is “the weakest link on security on Android”. Wireless carriers were described in the report as the “most challenging discussions”, due to their slow approval time while testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon Wireless and Sprint Corporation , already shortening their approval times.
In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public. In May , with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new “vendor interface”.
In Android 7. With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, “without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.
In September , Google’s Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.
In May , with the announcement of Android 10 , Google introduced Project Mainline to simplify and expedite delivery of updates to the Android ecosystem. As a result, important security and performance improvements that previously needed to be part of full OS updates can be downloaded and installed as easily as an app update.
Google reported rolling out new amendments in Android 12 aimed at making the use of third-party application stores easier. This announcement rectified the concerns reported regarding the development of Android apps, including a fight over an alternative in-app payment system and difficulties faced by businesses moving online because of COVID Android’s kernel is based on the Linux kernel ‘s long-term support LTS branches.
As of [update] , Android uses versions 4. Android’s variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.
In August , Linus Torvalds said that “eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years”. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory the traditional suspend that Android uses , and to disk hibernate, as it is known on the desktop. Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation ,  Google’s open-source chief Chris DiBona ,  and several journalists.
With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4. Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities and customizability of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.
The unlocking process resets the system to factory state , erasing all user data. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries.
Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android’s other source code projects. In Android 4. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments “traces” each time an application is launched.
Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android’s overall licensing model. Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. In current versions of Android, ” Toybox “, a collection of command-line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android does not provide a command-line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar “Toolbox” collection found in previous Android versions.
Android’s source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems. See List of custom Android distributions. Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development.
Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this. As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the ” jailbreaking ” of mobile devices,  manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC ,  Motorola ,  Samsung   and Sony ,  providing support and encouraging development.
As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices’ warranties to do so.
Internally, Android identifies each supported device by its device codename , a short string,  which may or may not be similar to the model name used in marketing the device. For example, the device codename of the Pixel smartphone is sailfish. The device codename is usually not visible to the end user, but is important for determining compatibility with modified Android versions.
It is sometimes also mentioned in articles discussing a device, because it allows to distinguish different hardware variants of a device, even if the manufacturer offers them under the same name. The device codename is available to running applications under android. Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.
Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties. In , journalists and researchers reported the discovery of spyware , called Pegasus , developed and distributed by a private company which can and has been used to infect both iOS and Android smartphones often — partly via use of 0-day exploits — without the need for any user-interaction or significant clues to the user and then be used to exfiltrate data, track user locations, capture film through its camera, and activate the microphone at any time.
They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.
The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk. Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from to , detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.
In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches. Google also wrote that “Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.
Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. As such, security has become a big issue.
Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn’t work”. And a bunch of broken promises”. They also wrote that “About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year”, stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.
Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the “Knox” project.
Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads. In , Norwegian security firm Promon has unearthed a serious Android security hole which can be exploited to steal login credentials, access messages, and track location, which could be found in all versions of Android, including Android The vulnerability came by exploiting a bug in the multitasking system enabling a malicious app to overlay legitimate apps with fake login screens that users are not aware of when handing in security credentials.
Users can also be tricked into granting additional permissions to the malicious apps, which later enable them to perform various nefarious activities, including intercepting texts or calls and stealing banking credentials. Some of the preinstalled malware can commit ad fraud or even take over its host device. In , the Which?
This conclusion stemmed from the fact that no security updates were issued for the Android versions below 7. Google refused to comment on the watchdog’s speculations. On August 5, , Twitter published a blog urging its users to update their applications to the latest version with regards to a security concern that allowed others to access direct messages.
A hacker could easily use the “Android system permissions” to fetch the account credentials in order to do so. Twitter confirmed that updating the app will restrict such practices.
Android applications run in a sandbox , an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system’s resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.
It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8. Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store. Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.
An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time. Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them.
The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect. Nova wrote that “The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.
By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.
If then later on parts of the app are activated that turn out to be malicious, the antivirus will have no way to know since it is inside the app and out of the antivirus’ jurisdiction”. The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that “the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks”, and that “the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity”.
In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May ,   a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device,   with an Android app for the service released in December. On October 8, , Google announced new Google Play store requirements to combat over-sharing of potentially sensitive information, including call and text logs.
The issue stems from the fact that many apps request permissions to access users’ personal information even if this information is not needed for the app to function and some users unquestionably grant these permissions. Alternatively, a permission might be listed in the app manifest as required as opposed to optional and the app would not install unless user grants the permission; users can withdraw any, even required, permissions from any app in the device settings after app installation, but few users do this.
Google promised to work with developers and create exceptions if their apps require Phone or SMS permissions for “core app functionality”. The new policies enforcement started on January 6, , 90 days after policy announcement on October 8, The API level requirement might combat the practice of app developers bypassing some permission screens by specifying early Android versions that had a coarser permission model. Dependence on proprietary Google Play Services and customizations added on top of the operating system by vendors who license Android from Google is causing privacy concerns.
The source code for Android is open-source : it is developed in private by Google, with the source code released publicly when a new version of Android is released. Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.
Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times. The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom ,  and they did not want third parties creating a “really bad user experience” by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.
Only the base Android operating system including some applications is open-source software, whereas most Android devices ship with a substantial amount of proprietary software, such as Google Mobile Services , which includes applications such as Google Play Store , Google Search, and Google Play Services — a software layer that provides APIs for the integration with Google-provided services, among others.
These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.
Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software.
In both cases, the use of closed-source software causes the system to become vulnerable to backdoors. It has been argued that because developers are often required to purchase the Google-branded Android license, this has turned the theoretically open system into a freemium service.
Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with the Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google’s compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document. In , Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent “Powered by Android” logo on their boot screens.
Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions. Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself.
In turn, third-party apps may have dependencies on Google Play Services. Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps , but incorporated portions of Android’s platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software. Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated.
Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android. Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system   and “one of the fastest mobile experiences available”.
As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as “practically the default operating system for launching new hardware” for companies without their own mobile platforms.
These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android’s popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.
Android has suffered from “fragmentation”,  a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less. For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android devices, numerous screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.
They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the “lowest common denominator” to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.
Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half In July , Google said that , Android devices were being activated every day,  up from , per day in May,  and more than million devices had been activated  with 4.
Android market share varies by location. In April , Android had 1. As of August , [update] the Google Play store had over 3 million Android applications published,   and as of May , [update] apps had been downloaded more than 65 billion times.
Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while “only in Japan was Apple on top” September—November numbers. Three billion Android smartphones were estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated “mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia”,  with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at While Android phones in the Western world almost always include Google’s proprietary code such as Google Play in the otherwise open-source operating system, Google’s proprietary code and trademark is increasingly not used in emerging markets; “The growth of AOSP Android devices goes way beyond just China [..
According to a January Gartner report, “Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.
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