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PDF Expert 7 also supports new gestures, including a one-finger tap and drag gesture to select texts, three-finger pinch out to copy or cut text and the three-finger tap to bring up the contextual menu.

Readdle has also implemented Dark Mode in the new version of the app, a much-requested feature from many users. It works just as you expect it to, adhering to the system-wide setting. Prizmo is a fully-featured scanner app for iOS and Mac that lets you capture documents and receipts, turning them into professional PDFs that you can share, archive, annotate, fill out as forms, or sign with the Apple Pencil or your finger.

The app is perfect for scanning business cards to add people to your contacts too. Text recognition starts immediately in the background, and the PDF is auto-uploaded into your shared folder immediately without any user action.

Prizmo also offers some of the deepest editing tools available in any scanning app, such as page curvature flattening, edge repair, background cleanup, user-editable OCR layout, and much more.

Prizmo edits are non-destructive, meaning you can reverse any operation at any time without the need of rescanning, so even your Apple Pencil annotations from a week ago can be edited at any time.

Prizmo offers not one but three OCR engines to handle the variety of languages and document styles too. Acrobat does have Liquid Mode though, which is great for reading and jumping around a PDF when researching.

On the left side, you can see an outline of the document and you can scroll through the document with your thumb. Liquid Mode highlights exactly what Acrobat is good for: reading and previewing, but nothing more. GoodReader has strong Apple Pencil support, with some of the best handwriting features of any app tested here. The Apple Pencil sensitivity is a little on the sensitive side and there are numerous extra taps to delete, undo, or change an Apple Pencil annotation.

All Books features are baked right into the share sheet, making importing into Books a breeze. Where Books falls short is, among other things, its markup tools.

PDF Pro 4 has a lot going for it once you get past the measly one-day free trial. If you do opt to pay for PDF Pro 4 though, the app has some solid features. The app can merge files nearly instantly — faster than nearly all other apps tested.

There are good annotation tools for quick markup and you can fill PDFs right within the app however, our testing yielded some heavy bugs in fillable PDFs, mainly in invisible text. Most PDF apps on the iPad use a top header bar to navigate and choose tools. However, PDF Hero opts for a left sidebar for housing tools, which is a great workflow for right-handed writers with the Apple Pencil.

The app is also easy to navigate and understand thanks to its reliance on text-based buttons rather than glyphs. There are still other PDF apps for the iPad that have very specific use-cases. Highlights does one thing very, very well: showcase your PDF highlights. As you highlight and underline items in the PDF, Highlights takes those highlights and creates a split-screen view showcasing all the most important bits of information in the PDF.

Overall, Highlights is likely best used by researchers or students who find themselves scouring through PDFs as they build a thesis or dissertation. LiquidText is another researcher-specific PDF app which provides you a very unique two-paned view for taking blurbs out of a PDF, taking notes on that specific blurb, and synthesizing your notes to other notes in other PDFs. High level active reading often requires the need to jump from page to page or document to document to find connections.

LiquidText is built on folks who need to jump between sections of information quickly and to ensure maximum effectiveness for connection-making. Of course, LiquidText is very research-specific and best used in the hands of a knowledge worker.

For specific research needs, LiquidText is one of the best options available on the App Store. For more general needs, most users should stick to PDF Expert. We here at The Sweet Setup love Goodnotes. Look for alternatives on : Windows Store PC. Readdle doesn’t seem to want to develop this application on PC Vote for this app on WishApplist!

After a certain number of votes, we will contact the publisher to let them know that many of you want to download it. The more of us who ask for it, the more likely it is to land on PC! You can also login to your account to be alerted when this app is available.

Users can now work on two or more PDF documents simultaneously side-by-side, and even keep the app opened in various spaces. PDF Expert 7 also supports new gestures, including a one-finger tap and drag gesture to select texts, three-finger pinch out to copy or cut text and the three-finger tap to bring up the contextual menu.

Readdle has also implemented Dark Mode in the new version of the app, a much-requested feature from many users.


‎PDF Expert – Read, Edit, Sign on the App Store – Breaking News


When it comes to annotations, PDF Expert has always had the most feature-rich highlighting engine in our testing. Offering very opaque coloring and dark colors makes it one of the few apps tested that allow you to easily redact lines of text using a black highlight, but do note that you need to flatten the PDF if you want it to remain redacted when shared.

This is something the NSA should probably look into. Annotations are also done very well when moved from platform to platform. Creation of those annotations is also a simple task. Handwritten annotations using the Apple Pencil are also best in the business. There are options for adjusting tip sensitivity, enabling you to hand-write with variable line thickness, just like with physical pen and paper. Highlighting, underlining, and strikethrough tools can all be applied easily with the Pencil as well.

Another nice trick: When using the Pencil, your fingertip is used for navigation while the Pencil is used for annotation. The small nature of the note bubble can make for rather tricky placement with a finger.

PDF Expert also boasts solid signature support. Our only complaint is the thickest line thickness is still a little thin for many forms. It used to be that you could only stow one signature in PDF Expert. PDF Expert allows you to switch between vertical and horizontal scrolling modes, both of which perform admirably.

You can also view PDFs in two-page mode. This is great for providing an overview of a specific section in a PDF, and is doubly good on the largest The two-page viewing mode gets a little cramped on the inch iPad Pro, but will do the job in a pinch. This is helpful for providing larger text when viewing in two-page mode on an inch iPad Pro, but otherwise eliminates margins where many tend to create annotations.

The voice reads quite slow by default, so make sure to tap on the gear icon and speed up the voice a little. Pushing the speed all the way to the hare end of the spectrum is ridiculously fast — somewhere right in the middle should do for most people. Overall, the reading experience is solid, offering one of the fastest renderings of large PDF files we tested. In other words, no matter what your office uses, you can probably sync your documents in the app.

Readdle has also created a secure and fast way to transfer PDFs from your iPad to your Mac and vice versa when both devices are connected to the same local network. Enter the code into the site on your Mac and watch as your Mac and iPad instantly connect to one another. Opening PDFs on the Mac is lightning quick and can be viewed right in the browser, or can be downloaded locally to your Mac. The app also allows you to enable iOS Data Protection file-encryption system.

These are great options that help keep access to your cloud storage secure but easily accessible to you. Foxit has stormed onto the iPad in recent memory after hitting its stride on Windows.

Foxit has great design taste, a strong set of tools in its free tier, and a reasonable annual subscription for editing, organizing, and filling and signing forms. Commenting tools — which oddly includes highlighting, underlining, comment boxes, and more — are diverse and customizable.

Second, signatures are super finicky in Foxit as of the time of writing. Developer and musician Stephen Coyle just released a new app that enables hands-free page turning of PDFs via facial expressions. There are two options of facial gestures available to control page turning: mouth control, which is the default, or wink control. Wink control advances forward with a right wink, and goes back with a left wink. It feels odd at first making these gestures to turn pages, but in my experience it quickly became comfortable.

PageTurn was designed primarily for musicians, who often bear the unenviable task of turning pages of sheet music while both their hands are occupied playing an instrument. It works with any PDF though, so readers can have hands-free page navigation as well. You can get PDFs into the app via the import button in the upper-left corner, which opens a Files picker, or if you have a PDF open in another app, you can copy it to PageTurn using the share sheet.

The app is a shining example of the creativity of indie developers. Today’s update brings you a handful of important fixes. The most prominent one is the fix for Dropbox connection issue!

Also under the hood stability improvements and crash exorcism. If you want to thank our tireless team, please write a review on the App Store or recommend PDF Expert to your friends. We’re always here for you at rdsupport readdle. I love how intuitive PDF Expert is. I mainly use it to markup and annotate documents and since investing in a Pencil, it is even better.

Now I can choose annotate mode and pick a tool, such as a highlighter and just scroll through a document and highlight everything I want without having to switch tools, modes or anything. This is a huge time and mistake saver when you have to highlight, underline or strike out many areas in multi page documents. It is also much easier to write comments or notes next to the text. Prior to this update a search would highlight everything in a salmon colour and auto close the search panel to leave you with the full screen to review your document.

If you wanted to navigate to a specific search result you could open the panel and scroll to it. Now the panel stays open taking up screen estate I cant find a way to close it without losing the search too and the search results highlight is now a pale yellow which is really hard to scan and see on a white background.

Can you at least make a switch to choose the panel behaviour and allow result colour choice. After the public release of PDF Expert 7 back in August, our team has been busy working on readying the next set of major features to be shipped in the app. Let’s dive into the details of today’s release. This remarkable feature of iPadOS empowers third-party developers to enable support for multiple windows in their apps, and PDF Expert is one of the few apps to implement this early on.

With multi-window support on iOS 13, your PDF experience is improved exponentially as you can now view and edit two PDF documents side-by-side on the same screen, without the need of any workarounds. Compare two PDF documents, refer one document while you edit the other, or jump between multiple PDF documents all at the same time — the possibilities are endless.

Creating a new instance of PDF Expert 7 is easy with a simple drag and drop gesture.


PDF Expert 7 Receives Powerful New Features for iOS 13 and iPad OS


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Syntactic Level On the syntactic level , the discrepant systems of English and Arabic generate loss which necessitates compensatory strategies to aid the translator to look for functional rather than formal equivalence.

Here are but two examples: tense and condition. When tense and aspect combined together there are 12 tenses in English, some of which have no equivalents in Arabic, such as present perfect and present continuous or progressive. The Arabic past or perfective tense refers to past, present or future time. The failure to capture the exact reference to time may result in a serious semantic loss.

The sorcerers came to Pharaoh 2. And the agony of death comes in truth 3. And those who disbelieve will be driven in throngs to hell, till they have come to it , the gates thereof will be opened Translators, however, differ with regard to tense and time. Condition is another problematic syntactic area where loss in translation can be detected.

Each kind is determined by the verb tense or form in both the main clause apodosis and the subordinate clause protasis. The conditional particles if and unless do not play any role in the determinacy of any of the above kinds. In fact, the conditional complex sentence may not contain any particle where an auxiliary verb had, were or the modal should introduces the dependent clause.

Both the real and the hypothetical are determined by conditional particle: inn , idhaa and law The first two particles in Arabic denote the first two kinds in English, whereas the third Arabic particle denotes the other two, and requires prefixing the main verb with laam.

Here are ten English translations of a Quranic aya wherein the first three employ verb forms indicating impossible condition which semantically contradicts the second part of it. Surely, Allah is Ever Determiner over everything. Ghali : 4 – Had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight. Truly, God is powerful over everything. Certainly, Allah has power over all things. Allah has power over all things. Adalhaqq and Aisha Bewley: 4 – And if God so willed, He could indeed take away their hearing and their sight: for verily, God has the power to will anything.

Asad: 6 – If Allah pleased, He could take away their sight and hearing; He has power over all things. Dawood: – If God wanted, He would take away their hearing and sight; God is Capable of everything. Allah is Able to do all things.

Pickthall : 4 – If Allah willed, He could take away their faculty of hearing and seeing; for Allah hath power over all things. Yusuf Ali : 20; and Musshaf Al-Madinah An- Nabawiyah Perhaps the cognate object or accusative poses a serious challenge for any translator from Arabic into English, simply because it is very common in the first and very rare in the second, in few instances such as: live a life or dream a dream.

This object serves as an effective means for emphasis and persuasion as well as a rhetorical function of musicality. The loss is not only inevitable but also hardly intelligible. Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley 50; and 92 : – As for those who are kafir, I will punish them with a harsh punishment. Arberry 55; and 97 : -As for the unbelievers, I will chastise them with a terrible chastisement.

Ghali 57; and : – So, as for the ones who have disbelieved, then I will torment them a strict torment – So, as for the ones who disdained and waxed proud, then He will torment them a painful torment 4.

Ali, Yusuf ; and : – As for those who reject faith, I will punish them with terrible agony. Asad 75; and : – And as for those who are bent on denying the truth, I shall cause them to suffer a suffering severe in this world – whereas those who felt too proud gloried in their arrogance He will chastise with grievous suffering 6.

Hilali and Khan 77; and – As for those who disbelieve, I will punish them with a severe torment – But as for those who refused His worship, He will punish them with a painful punishment 7. Pickthall 71; and : — As for those who disbelieve I shall chastise them with a heavy chastisement – and as for those who were scornful and proud, them will He punish with a painful doom 9.

Irving 57; and : – As for those who disbelieve, I will punish them severely – He will punish those who act scornfully and proud with painful torment Dawood ; and : – The unbelievers shall be sternly punished – As for those who are scornful and proud, He will sternly punish them In aya 83 of surat Mariam Mary two of the above ten translators have ventured to imitate the Arabic style and derived a cognate noun thus producing not only unnatural English but also far from the intended meaning.

Asad : Have you not seen that We sent Ash-Shayatins against the disbelievers, alluring them by every manner of allurement? Ghali The other eight preferred loss over unacceptability: – Do you not see that We send the shaytans against those who are kafir to goad them on? Ali, Yusuf : Hast thou not seen how We sent the Satans against the unbelievers, to prick them? Arberry : Know that we send down to the unbelievers who incite them to evil Dawood: 37 – See you not that We have sent the shayatins devils against the disbelievers to push them to do evil?

Hilali and Khan : – Have you not seen how We send devils to disbelievers, to provoke to them to fury? Irving : – Seest thou not that We have set Satans on against the unbelievers, to incite them with fury?

Mushaf Al-Madinah An-Nabawiyah : – Seest thou not that We have set the devils on the disbelievers, to confound them with confusion? Semantic Level This kind of loss is very common and often inevitable in translation as it is a corollary of the lack of equivalence in English and Arabic, especially in the domain of culture- specificity: many religious and cultural words have no equivalents in the two languages such as terms of kinship. Conspicuously, the most serious loss in translation is when the meaning, be it denotative or connotative, is lost or distorted, which undermines the purpose or skopos and even the justification of translation as an act of bilingual communication.

Here are two examples of the denotative and connotative loss in the following ayas: 7: – Arberry has completely missed the intended denotative meaning, i. Obviously, the intended Quranic meaning has a pejorative or derogatory sense, i. Textual Level Cohesion is one of the most significant constituents of the text:. It can be achieved via certain cohesive devices such as conjunctions, referring expressions, ellipsis, substitution, repetition, and parallelism.

Arabic and English deal with coordination and subordination in different ways: coordination is employed to express thoughts which are syntactically and semantically equal. The excessive use of coordinated, conjoined clauses in English may make the text rather boring to read and hard to focus on the ideas expressed in it, whereas subordination is deemed more elegant, and by corollary, more favoured than coordination based on parallelism which is a rhetorical device or figure of speech and a salient feature of good style in Arabic.

Furthermore, the Arabic coordinators are in many cases functionally equivalent to English subordinators. The disregard of such kind of functional equivalence will result in loss of cohesion in the target text. In aya 3 of the above sura, wa is equivalent to the English subordinator though, even though rather than the additive coordinator and.

Four of the following ten translators have rightly opted for subordination, two for coordination, one has lexicalized phrase , i. Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley: – We shall relate to thee the fairest of stories in that We have revealed to thee this Koran, though before it thou was one of the heedless.

Arberry : – In revealing the Koran We will recount to you the best of histories , though before We revealed it you were heedless of Our signs. And before i. Ali, Yusuf : – We relate the best stories to you, since We have revealed this Reading to you.

You were someone quite unaware previously. Mushaf Al-Madinah An-Nabawiyah: 6. The common rhetorical device metaphor is a clear case in point. Where literal rendition into English may not only cause unintelligibility but also a comic response, as it can be conspicuously demonstrated in the translation of the metaphor libaas as garments of which the singular means a sort of covering, as vestment meaning a ceremonial garment especially one worn by a priest in church, or as raiment which is archaic, denoting clothing in general in the aya in surat Al-Baqara.

The Cow : : – They referring to women are libaas to men, and you men are libaas to them i. Aya in surat Al-A raaf endorses this denotation in stating the God has created human beings from a single person, i. Adam , and He has created from him his wife, i. Hilali and Khan : 38 Likewise, the verb ya kul in aya in surat Al- Baqara and aya in Al-Umran ya kulu-l-iba has been rendered literally as eat, devour, gorge, or feed by eight of the following ten translators.

Instead of translating the metaphor, its ground should be rendered, i. Only two seem to have adopted a TL-oriented approach by opting for the ground. Eat not Riba usury doubled and multiplied Hilali and Kan : 92 – O believers, devour not usury, doubled and redoubled Arberry : 61 – O ye who believe! Devour not usury Doubled and multiplied Ali : – O ye who believe!

Devour not usury, doubling and quadrupling the sum lent Pickthall : 83 – O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not gorge yourselves on usury, doubling and re-doubling Asad : 87 – You who have iman! Do not feed on riba, multiplied and then remultiplied Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley – Believers, do not live on usury, doubling your wealth many times over – Dawood : – You who believe, do not live off usury which is compounded over and over again Irving : 66 6.

Gain The generic differences in the two language systems naturally generate loss on all levels. Repudiating the formal equivalence which produces literal, wooden and unnatural translation towards a functional, dynamic one; 3. Introducing an idiom or a rhetorical device in the TT for a non-existent one in the ST.

Here are some examples. Might it flower anew that youthful prime And restore to us, Buthayna, the bygone time And might we again be blest as we wont to be When thy folk were nigh and – Grudged what thou gavest me.

Shall I ever meet Buthayan alone again, Each of us, full of love, as a cloud of rain? To counterbalance the inevitable loss in the translation of Du a Al-Karawan The Call of the Curlew with its poetic style and highly classical and Quranic language, we have painstakingly attempted to achieve some gains by creating, for instance, an idiom or a metaphor that has no counterpart in the original.

All I could do was to sit among those women, glancing at them, irritated by them, cheating my hunger with small, fine pieces of bread? We scarcely spoke to one another. But as silence lasted too long, our inactivity became fretful and thinking was too oppressive, our mother said… pp. Translations are generally construed as products of the underlying determinacy or indeterminacy both of which squarely rest on text-types, skopos or purpose for elaboration, see skopos theory in Chapter Three and the techniques or strategies.

Yet, they are not absolute; they display a spectrum of high, low and zero. In maximum indeterminacy, source texts lend themselves to more than one acceptable version in the TL, whereas zero indeterminacy is tantamount determinacy wherein only one version is not acceptable but feasible, as explicitly evinced in the translation of poetry for indeterminacy and legal texts for determinacy.

Translation Determinacy 7. Text-Type Determinacy Determinacy of translation simply signifies that there should only be one single product in the TL. One case in point is the word-for-word translation or Dryden’s metaphase where SL individual words are replaced by TL words with sometimes strict adherence to the SL word-order.

This is why machine translation MT , which basically performs mere replacement or simple substitution of words in one language for words in another, has succeeded in dealing with standardized texts employing plain, formulaic language such as weather reports, government documents, and some legal texts.

Legal texts are determinately translated to ensure precise correspondence of the rights and duties in the source text and in the translation wherein only one accurate version is accepted, in both the source and target texts.

The language is a very distinct variety characterized by precision, plainness and clarity. Documents like contracts or wills, for instance, are formulaic and frozen or even fossilized so that a contract or will written or translated in the wrong formula and not according to the standardized form in both languages, is not a contract or will. This holds true for the other legal texts such as agreements, certificates, government documents, insurance policies, powers of attorney and testaments among others.

The lessee shall pay to the lessor as rent the sum of Five Hundred Jordanian Dinars JDs payable in advance in equal monthly installments upon the first day of each and every month during the term hereof. According to skopos theory, translation is the production of a functionally appropriate target text, based on an existing ST, and the relationship between the two texts is specified according to the skopos of the translation.

The theory even proclaims that «unless the skopos of the target text is specified, translation cannot, properly speaking, be carried out at all. Besides, the skopos or the intended purpose of the target text sometimes determines translation methods and strategies, or in other words, the process determines the product. Process Determinacy of the Product: Static vs.

Dynamic in English into Arabic translation Translation is not only determined by text-type as seen in translating legal texts, but also by the method, approach, strategy or technique which lays constraints on the translator who commits himself to adopting it.

If he, for instance, opts to formal equivalence which brings about a static translation perhaps because of being incompetent or ignorant of the dynamic type which utilizes the TL potentiality as might be demonstrated in the following examples m employing an Arabic prefix : 1. He deemed the matter easy 2. She asked him for mercy, but his heart has turned into stone. He drew water from the well. The dynamic counterparts of the above sentences employ the Arabic prefix which expresses request, new state or change:.

Static Tr. Dynamic Tr. The sad news made her cry. Or: The sad news caused her to cry. Likewise the translator uses the Arabic verbal sentence instead of one starting with verb to be kaana or with a noun or preposition: 1.

His two hands were tired. It is difficult to understand the question. Children are afraid of dogs St. It was night, all was quiet, there was utter silence.

Dyn Tr. My friend was angry then he became tongue-tied St. ST: The plain was rich with crops; there were many orchards of fruit trees and beyond the plain the mountains were brown and bare. There was fighting in the mountains and at night we could see the flashes from the artillery.

In the dark it was like summer lightning, but the nights were cool and there was not the feeling of a storm coming.

A dynamic translation free from the repetition of kaana is as follows:. A static translation determined by formal equivalence overlooks the cognate or accusative object in the Arabic dynamic rendition, e. He loved her very much St. It was well designed St. He was given a good beating St. He shouted as usual St. He talks like a child St. The employer treats the workers badly or: in a bad manner.

St Tr. Brill, Leiden , we have opted for the strategy of transferring Arabic repetition into English variation. This strategy has been backed by many proponents such as Lehrer 67 who imperatively asserts: «Do not keep using the same word repeatedly, vary the lexical choices if possible».

Axiomatically, variation in English helps to drift away vagueness and to get rid of the monotonous atmosphere which is likely to flare up if repetition is conserved. Here are but few illustrative instances:. TT: I recalled the long chain of unhappy events during her existence with a vulgar, lecherous husband. I recounted the jealousy which had devoured her, the humiliation which had saddened her soul and the fear which had tormented her heart. Then I brought to memory the mishap which had utterly crushed her when she heard the news of her husband’s murder and the deplorable and shameful conditions in which he had met death.

Then I thought over the infinite sufferings which had submerged her like water does a drowning man when the family had disowned her, turned her out of doors and exiled her and her two daughters. I relived these sad memories which did away with any possibility of refusal or discussion; I had to obey and be resigned. The Call of the Curlew It is worth noting that Taha Hussein seems to have used the verb dhakara in the more common form: tadhakar.

I have lost the notion of things around me. Translation Indeterminacy By and large, translators rarely commit themselves to one particular method or strategy. More often than not, diverse methods or strategies bring about a miscellany of translations. Furthermore, there can be more than one accurate or acceptable translation of the same source text furnished by different translators or even the same translator at different times.

The possibility of generating more than one translation has prompted Willard Quine in Baker, 11 to propound the thesis of the indeterminacy of translation. It is based on the notion that there are always different ways one might break a sentence into words, and different ways to distribute functions among words, hence there is no unique meaning that can be assigned to words or sentences.

Quine Ibid unequivocally postulates that there is always a possibility that the same expression or an expression and its translation equivalent could give voice to different modes of presentationi. This is in fact, the crux of the Quinean indeterminacy which, we nevertheless maintain, applies to certain, but not all, types of texts as has already been explicated in the determinacy of translation.

Translators are typically evaluated according to the extent to which they approximate maximal preservation of meaning in rendering non-literary texts, whereas they are evaluated according to the extent to which they transfer the aesthetic values and create an equivalent sense besides the preservation of the original meaning. Explicitly, the inherent subjectivity, aestheticity and the relativist construal in translation practices render literary translation, especially poetry, totally indeterminate.

This is easily manifested in the lethora of translations of celebrated works such as those by Shakespeare and the Qur’an which is unanimously deemed an imitable divine literary masterpiece. Here are instances of the different translations of the introductory phrase of almost all the Qur’anic suras except one, i. Albeit the surfeit of the translations of the Qur’an, the most recent one is not likely going to bring them to a close due to indeterminacy.

This is also true to loftily literary works such as the Shakespearean plays. Merchant of Venice is a case in point. Consider the following translations of Salerio talking about the Spanish ship «Andrew»: I should not see the sandy hour-glass run, but I should think of shallows and of flats, And see my wealthy Andrew dock’d in sand, Veiling her high top lower than her ribs To kiss her burial.

Hussein Amin: – – -. Mohammed Anani:. Amer Buheiri » » Another example: Jessica: But love is blind, and lovers cannot see The pretty follies that themselves commit, For if they could, Cupid himself would blush To see me thus transformed to a boy. Al-Wakil :. Amin :. Anani : Buheiri :! Poetry is perhaps the most potential domain for the indeterminacy of translation.

Not only different translators render a poem or a stanza differently, but one translator may produce, at different times, divergent versions. We can verifiy the above postulation by translating and retranslating certain stanzas after a lapse of time, as explicated below.

So much do I love wandering So much I love the sea and sky That it will be a piteous thing In one small grave to lie. Z-Akins 1 2 3 4 Another example: Call no man a foe, but never love a stranger, Build up no plan, nor any star pursue, Go forth with crowds, in loneliness is danger. Panic in your rage? Is there relief in your stretching? Or distress in your shrinking?

Is there humility in your dropping? Glory in your rising? Sadness in your silence Or happiness in your surging; O sea! Do tell me Good and evil in thee? The night was dark, The sea is in retreat and attack, I was standing, for an answer waiting, But the sea did not tell me.

Nor did the land. And when my night hoary turned, And dawn the horizon darkened, A song was the river chanting And the world pleating and spreading people you find good and evil, In sea, there is rising and ebbing.

Version 2 In your stillness, is there safety? And fright in your fury? In your stretch, is there facility? And in your contraction, difficulty? In your subsidence, is there humility? And pride in your tide? In your tranquility, is there sadness? And in your surge, easiness? O sea! Please tell me: Is there good and evil in thee? I stood at a night, dark and dusky, In attack and retreat was the sea. The sea never replied, Nor did the land, And when my night turned grey, To the horizon, Dawn made its way, I Heard a river singing.

The Universe folding and unfolding, Good and evil in people you see… As ebb and tide in the sea. There can be as many prose translations of the above stanzas as the poetic ones, due to the indeterminate nature of this kind of translation which is like painting, both being facets of art, governed by subjectivity and aestheticity, wherein different painters or even the same painter may produce different paintings of the same landscape.

The task of the translator is multiple: as a decoder, appreciator, critic, encoder and creator who maintains an equilibrium to transfer the SL text semantically as well as stylistically by necessity, he reads each word and each sentence in the SL text as carefully as a critic before he transfers and finally composes it in the TL. Word-for-word translation do not find mercy in our eyes, not because they are against the law of translation as an act of communication but simply because two languages are never identical in their vocabulary.

Lexicalization: To lexicalize a notion, according to Quirk, et aI, is «in lay terms, we now have a word for it. Lexicalization, be it optional or obligatory, renders the meaning of an expression more explicit, or as Lyons elucidates: «it is perhaps only when semantic distinctions are lexicalized, rather than grammaticalized, that what is expressed is explicit. Modalization Analogous to lexicalization, modalization simply refers to the use of a TL form of modality for a SL preposition.

Obviously, modality can be expressed by different parts of speech. The verbal forms of modality in English include auxiliaries such as will, would, can, could, may, might, must, ought to, need as well as finites such as allow, permit etc. In Arabic too, the verbal forms of modality include auxiliaries such as verbs of «proximation and commencement» like kaada , awshaka ,. In Arabic, too, it can be realized by adverbs such as abadan absolutely particles such as qad may or qat never or a preposition such ala or llaam ,Pill!.

The following diagram displays modality in English and Arabic. Eng: will, would, can, could, etc. Modality and Modulation: Modality is defined by Quirk, et al , «as the manner in which the meaning of a clause is qualified. He distinguishes between modality and modulation as follows: the former is concerned with propositions, the latter with proposals; the former comprises probability, possibility, certainty and frequency, the latter obligation and inclination.

Halliday , too, distinguishes between modality and modulation but states simultaneously that» they are closely interrelated.. They are the same system in different functions, where ‘functions’ refers to components of the linguistic system: the one is interpersonal, the other ideational.

Hence, due to this overlap and what Halliday accurately describes as » the complex nature of the relationship between modality and modulation which he considers a kind of ‘quasi modality’ ibid: it would suffice here to adopt the term ‘modality as subsuming modulation. Exemplification 8. English Modal Auxiliaries a. You may be right. Possibility: it can also be realized non-verbally: a. It is possible that you are right. Can you call back tomorrow? Ability: are you able to.. You must be joking.

Necessity: it is necessarily the case that you are joking. You must be back by ten o’clock. Obligation: you are obliged to be back by ten. I’ll write as soon as I can. Sometimes a modal auxiliary verb expresses more that one modal concept.

The following are some examples borrowed from Quirk, et. You may have to play it again. She must have been willing to help.

He was about to! He began to read aloud. Non-verbal Modality The bracketed sentences in 4. In Arabic it can be realized by a noun, a particle or a preposition as mentioned in 4 above and as illustrated in the examples in 5 and 6 below. Rendition of English Prepositions into Arabic: The Strategy of Lexicalization By employing the above strategy, English prepositions are lexicalized instead of being replaced literally by Arabic equivalent prepositions.

The strategy is hoped to reproduce a vivid, creative and dynamically communicative translation. In the following examples, some Arabic lexical items are bracketed to indicate optionality; otherwise lexicalization is obligatory. The university gave a dinner for him. Jones, of the Manor farm, had locked the hen-houses. Orwell: Animal Farm. Rendition of Arabic Prepositions into English 8. It is not my intention to harm you. He died leaving a large fortune. God has no partner.

Have you got a dictionary? Strategy of Modalization – Arabic modality can also be expressed by prepositions such as? You must obey the laws. As a modal, the preposition? Publications shall respect truth and shall refrain from publishing anything that contradicts the principles of freedom, national obligations, human rights and values of Arab and Islamic nation.

The strategy explained in 6.


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